1. The Schedule
The following schedule is recommended by the
Indian Academy of Pediatrics
OPV -1st dose,
Hepatitis B Vaccine - 1st dose
DPT - 1st Dose,
OPV - 2nd Dose,
Hepatitis B Vaccine - 2nd dose
DPT - 2nd Dose,
OPV - 3rd Dose
- 3rd Dose,
OPV - 4th Dose,
- 9 months
- 5th Dose,
Hepatitis B Vaccine - 3rd dose,
DPT -1st Booster dose,
OPV -1st Booster dose
- 2nd Booster,
OPV - 2nd Booster
Toxoid) - 3rd Booster dose,
Hepatitis B Vaccine - Booster dose
- 16 years
- 4th Booster dose.
Note : Thought the gap recommended between
first 3 OPV-DPT doses is 4 weeks,
some delay(even upto 1 month) over this period
should not cause any anxiety.
2. Diseases prevented
(Oral Polio Vaccine)
Diphtheria, P:Pertusis(Whooping Cough),
Within 3-6 weeks (sometimes a few months)
of giving BCG a small lump/redness will be seen
at the site of injection (left shoulder). The
lump may soften and subsequently rupture discharging
pus. It may take few weeks for this ulcer to
heal, leaving behind a scar. The ulcer should
be kept clean with soap and water and kept dry.
No ointment application is required. There may
be an associated lump in the armpit or in some
cases above the shoulder. If this lump increases
more than 1 cm in diameter or becomes red or
soft or attached to the overlying skin it would
demand your doctor's attention. The lump may
persist for months or years. If no reaction,
or mark is seen at BCG injection site after
3 months, consult your doctor. BCG significantly
decreases the risk of tuberculous meningitis(Brain
TB) and other disseminated (widespread) forms
OPV given soon after birth is called zero polio.
However it is counted as the first polio. Total
of maximum 5 polio doses are administered in the
first year of life. Over and above that 'pulse
polio' doses are administered atleast twice in
each winter to all children below 5 years of age,
irrespective of number and time of previous polio
doses. Additional doses of polio may be given
in a particular area if a case of polio is
found. Children should be given these doses when
approached by municipal authorities.
Swelling and pain at the injection site and
fever for upto 72 hours with irritability and
\ or excessive crying is common. Paracetamol
for 48-72 hours after DPT significantly reduces
chance and severity of these reactions. Fomentation
with ice wrapped in handkerchief helps to reduce
swelling and pain to some extent.
Fever between 5-12 days, measles like rash,
cough and cold are commonly seen post vaccination.
These may occur singly or in combination. These
do not need any treatment except paracetamol
to control fever. A child may not experience
any side effects at all.
Apart from side effects like those with measles
vaccine, mumps like swelling of parotid and
other salivary glands may be seen. However these
are not the rule.
Considering the high incidence of typhoid in
our country it would be worthwhile to administer
this vaccine. Newer vaccines now available are
administered as a single dose after two years
of age. Boosters are necessary every 3 years.
After the child is more than 8 years old a capsule
preparation is available. This oral vaccine
also needs to be taken every 3 years for continued
protection. When whole cell killed typhoid vaccine
becomes available in our country, it would be
a much cheaper and effective alternative.
Vaccines for meningitis, chicken pox and Hepatitis
A are now available. Discussion on these vaccines
is outside the scope of this booklet. Kindly
discuss the need of administering these vaccines
with your doctor.